Products > Pavers

RIBA Core Curriculum
- Design, construction and technology

Knowledge level
- General Awareness

This CPD looks at the benefits of clay paving and where and when it can be used. It will provide an overview of the different sizes and forms of clay pavers and considers how to choose the right construction method, including a brief look at rigid and flexible construction for clay pavers.

Laying patterns, the importance of edge restraint and British Standard BS EN 1344 are also featured in the course.

In this section
- Where are clay pavers manufactured?
- Where are clay pavers typically used?
- What size formats are available?
- Construction Types
- Standards
- Laying Patterns
- Accessories

Navigate through each step of the CPD using the left and right arrows to review the content. At the end of each section are some questions, these are required if you wish to obtain a certificate upon completing the course.                     




There are 4 purpose built factories in the Netherlands that specialise in clay paver production, Heteren, Kijfwaard, Schipperswaard and Zennewijnen. One factory alone can produce 250 million pavers a year.

Factories in the Netherlands are highly efficient and in some cases producing products in Europe can be more sustainable than producing in the UK, even after accounting for transportation.



Our German factories at Bramsche and Kirchkimmen produce specialist clay pavers for the UK market incorporating nibs into the 200 x 100 product range, making this product an easier product to lay.

UK manufactured products are produced at Kingsbury in the Midlands, which specialises in blue pavers, tactile and marker pavers.



Clay products are increasing in popularity in the UK, this is due to their unique sizing, textures and the warmer colours that they have to offer. Currently the most popular sizes used are 200 x 100 mm. However, in recent years we have seen more unusual sizes enter the marketplace.


Clay paver shapes
Clay paver sizes

Standard UK sizes

  • 200 x 100 x 62 mm – Square Edge and Chamfered
  • 200 x 133 x 65 mm – Square Edge
  • 100 x 100 x 65 mm – Square Edge and Tumbled
Clay paver shapes 1
Clay paver sizes

Standard German sizes

  • 200 x 100 x 62 mm – Chamfered
  • 210 x 50 x 70 mm – Waterstruck

Standard Dutch sizes

  • 200 x 48 x 85 mm – WF (Waalformat)
  • 200 x 64 x 85 mm – DF (Dikformat)
  • 200 x 50 x 65 mm – UWF
  • 200 x 65 x 65 mm – UDF
  • 200 x 100 x 70-80 mm – KK (Klinkerformat)
  • 240 x 80 x 65 mm – LF (Langformat)
  • 200 x 200 x 65 mm – TF (Tegelformat)
  • 150 x 150 x 65 mm – KTF (Kassei Tegel Format)
Tumbling provides a traditional aged look to the pavers, if designed with other materials i.e Natural Stone this can provide a traditional aged look to the pavers, if designed with other materials in natural stone this can also provide a contemporary look to any paver scheme
Waterstruck pavers provide a smooth and rustic finish


Flexible Construction
This is the most common method in both commercial and domestic use, due to ease of application and cost effectiveness.

However this method is prone to failure over time, particularly in high trafficked areas, either vehicular or places with high footfall and regular cleaning regimes in place.

It uses a type 1 sub base, a sand bed and sand joints. Laying depths are defined by a CBR (California Bearing Ratio) testing which is carried out on the subgrade to determine the build up required.


Rigid (Bound) Construction
Mainly used with natural stone products, this method uses a CBM / DBM sub-base a mortar bed and mortar jointing system. It can withstand very heavy vehicle and foot traffic, this comes with additional costs, but if constructed in line with BS-7533 will offer a 40 year construction life.


There are two main standard documents for paving

BS 7533 Parts 1 to 12
(Code of practice for laying, flexible and rigid)

BS EN 1344:2013
(Clay Pavers – Requirements and Testing Methods)

The most relevant parts of BS 7533 for clay pavers

  • Part 1 – Structural design for Heavy duty pavements
  • Part 2 – Structural design for Lightly trafficked areas
  • Part 3 – Best practice for laying paving
  • Part 6 – Best practice for laying kerbs
  • Part 9 – Rigid Construction
  • Part 11 – Maintenance and Reinstatement
  • Part 13 – Guide to permeable paving


PaverCPD 26
Basket Weave Pattern
Paver CPD Herringbone Pattern
90 Degree Herringbone Pattern

Herringbone offers the strongest bond pattern
PaverCPD 24
45 Degree Herringbone Pattern
PaverCPD 23
Stretcher Bond Pattern

All laying patterns will require a form of edge restraint. An edge restraint is an existing or constructed element forming a boundary to the paved area to prevent lateral movement of the pavers and material loss from the bedding course. A failed edge restraint leads to a failed pavement.

Edge restraint summary

  • Edge restraints must be provided around the perimeter of the area to be paved.
  • The restraint construction, together with any haunching, should be mature before any vibration of the paving takes place.
  • Gaps between edge restraints or at the intersection with other pavements should be sealed to avoid loss of bedding sand.


Deterrent Paver
This is often used by local authorities and the Highways Agency to impede pedestrian access to areas of danger
PlatformEdgeBuster_BLUE AW
Blister Paver
Used to denote a crossing area for the visually impaired, these are in a square pattern.
PlatformEdgeBlister_BUFF AW
Offset Blister Paver
These are mainly found in off street applications and are regularly used to indicate the edge of a platform at rail and tram stations. These are in an offset pattern.
Buff_Direct_Guide AW
Directional Guidance Paver
These are used to help guide the visual impaired along the safest route
Paver CPD
Corduroy Pavers
Often used at the top and bottom of steps as a hazard warning, running parallel to the hazard
lozenge_Paver_BUFF AW
Lozenge Platform Paver
These are often found at light rail and tram stops within town centres
Yellow_Paver_Marker AW
Yellow Marker Paver
These are usually 200 x 100 mm in size and are used to highlight areas such as car parking bays
Step Marker Paver
These have a built in groove for a visibility strip to highlight steps
PaverCPD 10
Other accessories such as infill units which are used for finishing off areas, channel units to manage surface water run off, ramp systems and kerb units including boot kerbs, cant kerbs and bullnose kerbs are also available.

Ask a Question about this CPD

    CPD Q&A

    You’ve reached the end of the CPD. To make sure you’ve taken on board the key learnings of this course, please fill out the quick multiple choice Q&A below. This will certify that you have completed the CPD and provide you with an email certificate, which, if the course is accredited, you can share with RIBA.


    Which laying pattern offers the strongest bond?


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    Which tactile paver is used at the top and bottom of steps?


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